Questions about the COVID-19 vaccine booster have recently dominated scientific discussions, news headlines, dinner conversations, such as who is eligible and how to choose, but regularly to the immune system. The habit of giving a refreshing “refresh” is nothing new.
Jonathan Abraham, an assistant professor of microbiology at the Brabatonic Institute of Harvard Medical School and an infectious disease specialist at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, said with Harvard Medical School News. vaccination booster.
What exactly is a booster shot and how does it work?
Abraham: Booster shots aim to raise the level of the immune response after these naturally decline.The booster Immune system The antibody-producing cells and other immune cells are recalled because they assume they are looking at the pathogen again. The quantity and quality of antibodies produced may increase. Through a process called antibody affinity maturation, our immune system learns to do a better job in recognizing pathogens and making antibodies that bind more strongly to their targets. For SARS-CoV-2 virusFor example, affinity matured antibodies are more effective at recognizing mutants with multiple mutations.
What other vaccines require regular booster immunization besides COVID-19?
Abraham: Examples include Tdap immunity such as tetanus, diphtheria, and cell-free whooping cough. Normally, a booster with a Td component or Tdap is required every 10 years to maintain immunity.
Why do some vaccines require booster immunity, while others do not?
Abraham: For some pathogens, having an existing primed immune response (eg, in the form of measurable antibody levels) is important for efficacy. Therefore, antibody levels naturally decrease over time and require a booster.For others PathogenAs with the hepatitis B virus, completing the immunized three-shot series is likely to provide lifelong protection, so measurable antibody levels are not checked on a regular basis. However, for healthcare professionals, for example, if the risk of infection is high, it may be important to check antibody levels at least once and provide boosters if antibodies are found to be low. Therefore, the decision to boost is multifactorial and ultimately based on research and experience.
Is the COVID-19 booster different from other vaccine boosters?
Abraham: So far, the same SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antigen has been used in vaccines and boosters. However, over time, the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein may be fully reshaped or mutated. amplifier To prime the immune system to recognize the mutant virus, you need to use the updated strain antigen. This scenario is similar to what is done annually with flu season virus vaccines, but we believe that many influenza vaccines are strain-matched vaccines rather than regular boosters.
This requires some speculation, but given that SARS-CoV-2 has a marked ability for shapeshifts and mutations, is it necessary to have regular boosters in the foreseeable future? ??
Abraham: Vaccines are very effective in preventing severe infections and death, but not 100% effective in stopping the acquisition and transmission of the virus. Vaccinated people are more likely to be exposed to the virus and develop breakthrough infections, especially in areas where infection rates are high due to low vaccination rates. With this in mind, the highly contagious variants will require regular boosters over the next few years. During that period, it is unlikely that you will see the original vaccine strain, so it may be wise to use the updated vaccine strain. Vaccine strain Again, it’s virtually extinct.
Harvard Medical School
Quote: What happens to my immune system when I get a booster? (November 22, 2021) Obtained November 22, 2021 from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-11-immune-booster.html
This document is subject to copyright. No part may be reproduced without written permission, except for fair transactions for personal investigation or research purposes. Content is provided for informational purposes only.
What happens to our immune systems when we get a booster? Source link What happens to our immune systems when we get a booster?
The post What happens to our immune systems when we get a booster? appeared first on California News Times.