Syukuro Manabe of Princeton University, New Jersey, and former Klaus Hasselmann of the Maxplank Meteorological Institute in Hamburg, Germany, commented on “Physical modeling of global climate, quantification of variability, and reliable prediction.” Share half of the prize. global warming“Giorgio Parisi of the University of Sapienza in Rome receives the other half” for the discovery of the interaction of disorder and variability in the physical system from the atomic scale to the planetary scale. ” Nobel Laureate in Physics announced on Tuesday (October 5th).
Such complex systems are inherently difficult to understand because they are characterized by both randomness and disorder. Statement of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.. “This year’s award recognizes new ways to explain them and predict their long-term behavior,” the statement said.
Manabe started this work in the 1960s. He was the first to investigate how the Earth’s energy balance, the difference between the amount of solar energy received by the Earth and the energy sent back to space, affects the movement of the atmosphere.With this understanding, he showed links between more carbon Atmospheric carbon dioxide and rising temperatures on the Earth’s surface — the work used in today’s climate models.
About a decade later, Hasselman created a model that correlates weather with climate, showing how climate models can make reliable long-term forecasts, despite the diverse and chaotic nature of short-term weather patterns. This work also allowed him to develop ways to discover obvious “fingerprints” of both natural and human acute events that affected the climate. These methods were later used to prove that the rise in atmospheric temperature was due to carbon dioxide emissions from human activities such as burning fossil fuels.
Around 1980, Parisi followed up on this task and looked more theoretically at how to find hidden patterns in complex systems. By investigating a metal alloy called spin glass — iron atom Distributed throughout the grid copper It makes a big difference in the magnetic properties of materials — he explained how seemingly small adjustments to large systems can have serious implications. This has led to many subsequent insights not only in climate physics, but also in various disciplines such as mathematics, biology, neuroscience, and machine learning.
“The findings recognized this year show that our knowledge of climate is based on a solid scientific foundation based on a rigorous analysis of observations,” said Tolls, chairman of the Nobel Prize in Physics. Hans Hanson said. Said in a statement.. “All of this year’s winners have contributed to gaining deeper insights into the characteristics and evolution of complex physical systems.”
The award is presented shortly before the 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference in Glasgow, Scotland, in November. At the conference, countries are expected to negotiate urgent and fundamental reduction plans for greenhouse gas emissions over the next decade.
On August 9, a groundbreaking report from the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change issued a harsh warning that the Earth is expected to reach critical thresholds. Climate change Within the next 20 years.
The report, described by UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres as “Code Red for Mankind,” warns that extreme heat waves, droughts and floods will become more common as global warming occurs. I am.
“The alarm bell is deafening and the evidence is irrefutable. Greenhouse gas emissions Burning fossil fuels and deforestation have choked our planet and put billions of people at imminent danger, “says Guterres. Said in a statement.. “Now we can work together to avoid a climate catastrophe, but … there is no time to delay and no excuses.”
The award comes with a prize of SEK 10 million ($ 1.15 million), half of which is evenly distributed between Manabe and Hasselman. The other half will be handed over to Parisi.
Originally published in Live Science.
The Nobel Prize in Physics is presented to a trio whose research has warned the world of climate change.
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