Black holes are getting strange day by day. When scientists first confirmed the existence of giants in the 1970s, we considered them to be very simple and inactive corpses. Later, renowned physicist Stephen Hawking discovered that black holes weren’t exactly black, but actually gave off heat. And now, two physicists have noticed that some dark objects are also putting pressure on their surroundings.
Such a simple, non-rotating discovery “Black Hole In a statement, co-author Xavier Calmette, a professor of physics at the University of Sussex, said it was even more exciting given that having pressure and temperature was a complete surprise. “
Calmet and his graduate student, Folkert Kuipers, were investigating quantum effects near the black hole event range. This is very difficult to identify. To address this, researchers have adopted techniques that simplify calculations. When they were working, strange terms appeared in the math of their solution. After months of turmoil, they understood what this newly discovered term meant: it was an expression of the pressure generated by a black hole. No one ever knew this was possible, and it changes the way scientists think about the relationship between black holes and other parts of the universe.
In the 1970s, Hawking became one of the first physicists to apply. Quantum mechanics Trying to understand what is happening on the event horizon — the area around the black hole where even light cannot escape beyond it. Prior to this task, everyone thought that a black hole was a simple object.according to General theory of relativityThe theory of gravity, which first suggested the existence of black holes, does not pay attention to the event horizon. The event horizon is the “boundary” of a black hole, defining the area that needs to move faster than light to leave black. But it was just a fictitious line of the universe. If you happen to cross it, you won’t even know that until you turn around and try to leave.
Hawking changed it all. He realized that quantum bubbles pointing to a sea of particles constantly popping in and out of existence in a space-time vacuum could affect that simple view of the event horizon.Sometimes a pair of particles spontaneously emerges from an empty vacuum Space-timeThen, with a momentary energy, they disappear from each other and the vacuum is restored to its original state. However, if this is too close to a black hole, one of the pairs can be trapped behind the event horizon and the other can escape. Black holes still retain the energy cost of the escaped particles, so they need to lose mass.
This process is now known as Hawking radiation. Through these calculations, we found that black holes are not completely 100% black. They shine a little. This brilliance, known as “blackbody radiation,” means that it also has heat and entropy (also known as “obstacles”) and all other terms commonly applied to more common objects such as refrigerators and automobile engines. To do.
Hawking focused on how quantum mechanics affects near black holes. But that’s not all.Quantum mechanics does not include force gravity, And a complete explanation of what is happening near the event horizon should include an explanation of how quantum gravity, or strong gravity, works on a small, small scale.
Since the 1970s, various physicists have tried their luck both in developing quantum gravity theories and applying them to event horizon physics. The latest attempt comes from this new study by Calmet and Kuipers, published in the journal in September. Physical Review D..
“Hawking’s groundbreaking intuition that black holes are not black, but have a radiation spectrum that is very similar to that of a blackbody, makes black holes mutual between quantum mechanics, gravity, and thermodynamics. It makes it an ideal laboratory for investigating its effects, “Calmet said.
Without a complete theory of quantum gravity, the duo used effective field theory, or an approximation technique called EFT. This theory assumes that gravity at the quantum level is weak. This assumes that the computation can proceed to some extent without collapsing everything, as it would occur if the gravitational force of the quantum region is modeled as very strong. These calculations do not give a complete picture of the event horizon, but may provide insights around and inside the black hole.
“Thinking of a black hole within the general theory of relativity can show that there is a singularity at the center where the laws of physics we know must be violated,” Calmette explained. “It is hoped that if quantum field theory is incorporated into the general theory of relativity, we may find a new description of black holes.”
Pressure is applied here
Calmet and Kuipers used EFT to investigate the thermodynamics of black holes near the event horizon when they noticed strange mathematical terms appearing in the equations. At first, the term completely confused them — they didn’t know what it meant or how to interpret it. But that changed during the conversation on Christmas Day 2020.
They noticed that the terms of the equation represent pressure. Actual, actual pressure. The same pressure that hot air exerts inside a rising balloon, or the pressure exerted on a piston inside a car engine.
“The moment of pin-drop when we realized the mysterious result of the equation showed that the black hole we were studying was under pressure. After months of work, it was exhilarating,” Kuipers said. He looks back.
The pressure is almost ridiculously small, less than 1/10 ^ 54 of the standard. air pressure On earth. But it’s there. They also found that the pressure could be positive or negative, depending on the particular mixture of quantum particles near the black hole. Positive pressure is the type that keeps the balloon inflated, and negative pressure is the tension felt by the stretched rubber band.
Their results extend the idea of black holes as thermodynamic entities that have pressure as well as temperature and entropy. Their work models only weak quantum gravity and ignores strong gravity, so it is not possible to fully explain the behavior of black holes, but it is an important step.
“Our work is a step in this direction, and the pressure exerted by the black holes we were studying is small, but the fact that it exists is astronomical physics, particle physics, quantum. It opens up several new possibilities across physics research. “Calmet concludes.
Originally published in Live Science..
Strange mathematical terms change the big picture of black holes
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