Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are thought to have great potential in the field of regenerative medicine aimed at repairing damaged tissue. However, little is known about their in vivo plasticity. Researchers have identified subpopulations of MSCs that promote fracture healing and increase their ability to differentiate into a variety of cell types.
MSC is at Bone Bone marrow, “pluripotency”, which means they can renew themselves and develop into different disciplines Cell type, Bone, fat, chondrocytes, etc.Researchers had previously developed a mouse line for use Green fluorescent protein Highlight cells expressing a specific molecule known as CD73. A bone marrow study of this mouse revealed that the MSC subpopulation expresses CD73 and sinusoidal endothelial cells (sEC), which are part of the vascular system of the bone marrow.
CD73-positive MSCs were found to be more proliferative and more likely to differentiate into a variety of cell types than CD73-negative MSCs. This indicates that this group of MSCs may be particularly effective in bone repair. Therefore, researchers continued to study the function of these CD73-positive MSCs in fracture healing.
When a fracture heals, it progresses through various stages. These include coagulated blood that forms during fractures, which replaces fibrous tissue and cartilage callus, followed by the formation of hard bone callus. The normal bone is then replaced by a hard callus, which returns to its normal shape and is remodeled.
“Callus generation is with the mobilization of MSCs from surrounding tissues. Bone marrow“The lead author, Assistant Professor Kenichi Kimura, explains. Fracture healing The model is useful for investigating the cytokinetics of MSC migration and differentiation during tissue regeneration. “
The team was able to observe the CD73-positive MSC move towards the fracture site and form new cartilage and bone cells to heal the fracture. CD73-positive sEC was also involved in fracture healing because it contributed to the process of “angiogenesis,” the formation of new blood vessels that support healed bone.
Finally, they transplanted a CD73-positive MSC into the area of the fracture, which significantly enhanced the fracture. Healing process Compared to when transplanted into CD73 negative MSCs.
“Identifying this subpopulation of mesenchymal stem cells can have significant benefits in regenerative medicine and the treatment of fractures,” said Kimura.
Kenichi Kimura et al., Bone marrow CD73 + mesenchymal stem cells show increased stem cell activity in vitro and promote fracture healing in vivo. Bone report (2021). DOI: 10.1016 / j.bonr.2021.101133
University of Tsukuba
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