Ötzi is a well-preserved 5,300-year-old mummy that created an international sensation when it was excavated from a high glacier in the Italian Alps in 1991.
Since that time, of course Mummification The individual, named Ötzi by the media because he was found in a mountain above the Ötztal valley, is of strong public interest because the mummified body of a man, the clothes he wore, and the tools he had had been studied in the past. And has been attracting expert scrutiny for decades.
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Indeed, the discovery of Ezzi is ranked as one of the greatest archaeological discoveries of the 20th century.
Catalina Hasel, a spokesman for the Archaeological Museum in South Tyrol in Bolzano, said: Italy where Ötzi is housed.
But, like many archaeological discoveries, the story of his discoveries is one of the little things gained. Through a detailed analysis of the patient and over time, Ötzi has slowly revealed his secrets.
How was Iceman found?
Ötzi Ezzi was discovered in September 1991 by two German hikers crossing the Tisenjoch Pass at an altitude of 10,530 feet (3,210 meters) from the Ötztal Valley in western Austria. They noticed that the upper part of the human body was sticking out of the ice.
“The mummy was found lying spread out on his stomach,” Hassel said. “The left arm was leaning strongly to the right and lay under the chin.”
According to Hasel, the summer was particularly warm and the high temperatures helped expose Iceman’s remains. “There was something warm Sahara “The wind that brings sand to the glaciers where Iceman is stuck,” she said, “so it wasn’t pure white, it was covered with red sand and melted even faster.”
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German hikers have warned Austrian authorities. Austrian authorities assumed that the body was the victim of an unfortunate mountaineering accident. This assumption hurriedly tried to pull the body out of the ice the next day. The rescue team tried to dig Iceman out of the ice using an ax and a rock drill, despite the lack of trained archaeologists. In the process, some of the mummies were damaged, including the left hip and thighs, and some tools, including a bow. Smithsonian Magazine report.
The first attempt to free the body from the ice was hampered by bad weather, so authorities tried again the next day. The rescue operation took longer than expected, but five days after the discovery of Iceman, the mummy was released from the ice and completely exposed.
A helicopter carried the mummy out of the mountain and Iceman was taken to the Forensic Institute of Innsbruck Medical University in Austria. There, Archaeologist Conrad Spindler of the University of Insbruck examined the ruins and announced that the mummy was “at least 4,000 years old” rather than a mountaineer. Scientific American report.
Ice Natural mummification.. This process involves preserving organic tissue without human intervention, as in the case of mummification and deliberately applied chemicals in ancient Egypt. In addition to very cold environments, natural mummification can occur in dry environments and in oxygen-deficient areas such as swamps and swamps.
Subsequent radiocarbon analysis of Iceman’s tissue revealed that Iceman was more than 4,000 years older. Radiocarbon dating Measuring carbon-14, isotope, or carbon version — Iceman was determined to be about 5,300 years old, dating back to 3300 BC. This means that Ötzi lived in a period of history known as the Chalcolithic, a transitional period between the Neolithic. , Or “Neolithic”, and late Bronze Age.
The Chalcolithic (3500 BC-1700 BC), also known as the Chalcolithic, began widespread use of metal while using stone tools by today’s Europeans, but has not yet smelted copper and tin. It represents the time when it was. Make bronze. It was also the time when the first complex social hierarchy developed and large monumental structures made of stone such as the famous European megalithic tombs, standing stones and dolmens began to be built.
After being excavated, Ezzi was initially housed in the Forensic Institute of the Innsbruck Medical University in Austria. However, when researchers learned that the mummy was found on the Italian side of the Alps 100 feet (30 m) from the Austrian border, the Italian government claimed the body, Smithsonian Magazine report. Austria agreed, and six years later, Ezzi was moved to the Archaeological Museum in South Tyrol. There, he is housed in a special “cold cell”, kept constant at 20.3 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 6.5 degrees Celsius) and can be seen through a small window. His crafts and clothing are also on display.
What we know about Ötzi
Ötzi has undergone extensive scientific analysis since its discovery. This helped me learn what Iceman’s life was like, how he died, and when he was alive.
The first analysis focused on the physical characteristics of Iceman. Iceman would have been about 5 feet tall, 3 inches (1.60 m) high, and weighed about 110 pounds (50 kilograms). Live science previously reported.. Due to the low levels of subcutaneous fat in his body, researchers conclude that Ezzi has a lean, supple body shape. Bone sol analysis ( Bone Frequently used to determine the age of his femoral skeleton) showed that he was in his forties when he died.
“Iceman was healthy, but not completely healthy,” Harsel said.Analysis showed that he suffered from several illnesses, including: Lyme disease And intestinal parasites.Microscopic analysis of his stomach found evidence of Helicobacter pylori, Bacteria that cause Gastric ulcer And gastritis, Live science previously reported..He also had extensive wear on his teeth, and his joints, especially his hips, shoulders, knees and spine, showed signs of significant wear suggesting that he was suffering. arthritis..In addition, his lung Being covered with soot indicates that he may have spent a lot of time around an open flame throughout his life. He even had signs of tooth decay, periodontal disease, and tooth trauma, Live science previously reported..
DNA The analysis also unraveled the complex genome of Ötzi. The findings have nothing to do with his current population on the European continent, genetically Affinity between Sardinia and Corsica inhabitants.2012 paper published in the journal Nature Communications He also revealed that he probably had brown eyes O-type blood And was Lactose intolerance..His genetic predisposition indicates an increased risk of coronary arteries Heart disease, This may have contributed to the development of calcification (hardened plaque) around his carotid artery, Live science previously reported..
Using isotope analysis, or isotope analysis that quantifies different forms of the same element such as carbon-12 and carbon-13, identifies the origin of Ezzi and reconstructs certain aspects of his diet, including: Did. What he ate before he died.. Isotopes are ingested in foods eaten by living organisms and stored in bones, teeth and other tissues. “Everything points to its origins from the south of the Alps,” Hassel said.
His last meal included wild meat from Ivex and red deer, einkorn wheat grains, and, strangely, served as a “wrap” to hold his food or used as a treatment for intestinal parasites. It contained toxic fern that could have been, Live Science previously reported.
A detailed analysis of Ezzi’s relics also revealed much about the life and era of the ancients. When he was first dug out of the ice, he was found to be littered with leather, plant fibers, animal skins, strings, axes, and unfinished bows. Archaeological excavations conducted in the fall of 1991 and the summer of 1991 found additional relics such as leather, leather, knives, quivers, and Ötzi clothing.Archaeologist could Rebuild the Iceman wardrobeIt consisted of a cloak, leggings, a belt, a loincloth, a bear fur hat, and even shoes. The latter was made of deer skin stretched on a string net and was insulated with grass. Archaeologists have also found hoof fungus, scrapers, boring tools, bone awls, and leather pouches with flakes.
Ötzi has 61 tattoos in the shape of parallel lines and crosses that decorate the chest, lower back, wrists, ankles, knees and calves. Live science previously reported.. Unlike modern tattoos, these were not made with needles. Instead, a small incision was made in his skin and the resulting wound was filled with charcoal. Researchers do not consider tattoos to be decorative.Rather, they may have served a slightly understood therapeutic or medical purpose, perhaps in primitive form. acupuncture..
How did Iceman die?
The situation of Ezzi’s death is arguably the biggest mystery surrounding him. When he first recovered from the ice, experts speculated that Ezzi had died in a mountaineering accident. Researchers speculated whether he died after falling into a crevasse, succumbing to exposure to the element, or simply losing his leg on dangerous ice and falling and dying. However, in 2012, a detailed analysis of Ezzi’s body revealed that he was likely killed. Live science previously reported..
Iceman suffered two serious injuries. One was injured on the shoulder and the other on the head. The first injury consisted of a flint arrowhead embedded in the left shoulder. X-ray Originally implemented in 2001, as reported by Scientific American.. The second injury was probably a severe head injury from a blunt instrument. First, the researchers discussed which injury caused his death.But the 2012 study Journal of the Royal Society Interface It became clear that the arrow was the main cause of death.
“The iron pierced the left shoulder blade and injured the subclavian artery, an important artery below the clavicle,” Hassel said.
Related: Iceman had just sharpened his tools the day before the murder
Iceman may have died within minutes of bleeding, according to Hellsel. In addition, the study found that his red blood cells were surprisingly intact after 5,000 years and showed evidence of coagulation proteins that appeared immediately in human blood immediately after the wound but disappeared quickly. This suggests that Ezzi did not survive the wound.
Researchers now believe that Iceman may have been ambushed and an arrow shot by an unknown perpetrator hit his back and killed him. He may have suffered a head injury at the same time as or after the arrow injury. Live science previously reported.. But why he was killed remains a mystery.
Ötzi has been fascinating the world for 30 years since its discovery. Mummy gives a glimpse into the life and era of a man who lived over 5,000 years ago in a world far from the modern world of digital communications, space travel and all sorts of advanced technologies. Still, the clothes he wore and the tools he had suggested that he had adapted sharply to his environment and was familiar with the plants, animals and techniques of his time. Future research using new and innovative technologies will continue to reveal more about Ezzi’s life and era.
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