Our bodies can fine-tune the immune response to infections and make them proportional to the threat at hand. A new study from the Karolinska Institute in Sweden shows that B lymphocytes, the immune cells that make antibodies, choose from a variety of cell fate to balance the magnitude of the acute immune response with the memory response that protects it from future threats. Explains how to do it.Research published in Immunity, May contribute to the optimization of vaccines to combat viruses and other pathogens.
Efficient Immune response Infectious diseases and vaccines require antibodies produced by specialized effector B cells in the immune system. Effector B cells produce large amounts of antibodies that fight acute threats, while memory B cells are future by rapidly producing new effector B cells that produce antibodies when an intruder returns. Protect us from threats. To date, our understanding of how the immune system regulates the balance between effectors and memory B cells has been limited.
Early wave of memory cells
In a new study, researchers at the Karolinska Institute studied infection in animal models and early B cell production after vaccination. They found that B cells make early cell fate decisions that affect the balance between effectors and memory responses.
“There is a wide range of early waves of memory cells that appear to be the” default “fate for many activated B cells, and these early memory cells appear to be as long-lived as the late waves of traditional memory cells. Indicates that it looks like. “Taras Krezlavsky, an assistant professor at the Solna Medical School at the Karolinska Institute, who led the study, says:” Early memory cells are kept as reserves and are quickly reactivated when threats increase, effector B. It is transformed into cells. In this way, our body can fine-tune the antibody response in proportion to the threat level. “
Can improve vaccine design
The researchers also show that early memory responses are evolutionarily conserved. This opens up the possibility of affecting human B cell responses through vaccination.
“We believe that rational vaccine design will allow us to manipulate the types of B cells that are formed, making our body more effective in defense,” said the Ph.D. in the research team at Taras Kreslavsky, the lead author of the study. Vassilis Glaros, a student at
Researchers plan to further study how early B cell responses can be regulated and the consequences of distorting the response between effector and memory cell fate.
Important for the defense of our body
“Memory B cells are essential for our body’s defense against evolving pathogens, such as the SARS-CoV-2 virus variant that causes COVID-19,” said a doctoral student in a research group at the Karolinska Institute. Co-author Sebastian Ols said. Medical, Solna, Karolinska Institute. “Our memory cells are better at adapting and parrying new variants than our effectors. cell Therefore, it is important that the vaccine elicits diversity. memory B cell response. ”
Vassilis Glaros et al, “Restricted access to antigens promotes early B cell memory production while suppressing the plasmablast response.” Immunity (2021). DOI: 10.1016 / j.immuni.2021.08.017
Quote: New discoveries on B cells improve vaccine design (September 14, 2021) obtained from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-09-cells-vaccine.html on September 14, 2021 There is likely to be
This document is subject to copyright. No part may be reproduced without written permission, except for fair transactions for personal investigation or research purposes. The content is provided for informational purposes only.
New findings on B cells may improve vaccine design Source link New findings on B cells may improve vaccine design