Currently available COVID vaccines require refrigeration and a high level of manufacturing capacity, making it difficult to manufacture and distribute the vaccine widely, especially in developing countries. Researchers at Boston Children’s Hospital report in the November 2 issue that new types of vaccines are much easier to manufacture and may not require refrigeration. PNAS..
Hidde Ploegh, Ph.D. , Leading authors Novalia Pishesha, Ph.D., Thibault Harmand, Ph.D. Researchers led by believe that their technology could help bridge the global vaccination gap and that the same technology could be applied. For vaccines against other diseases.
In mice, the vaccine elicited a strong immune response against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. It was successfully lyophilized and later reconstituted without loss of potency. In testing, it remained stable and strong for at least 7 days. room temperature..
Unlike current COVID-19 vaccines, the new design is completely protein-based and can be easily manufactured in many facilities.It has two components: some of the antibodies and viruses derived from alpaca known as Nanobodies. Spike protein Bind to the receptor above Human cells..
“You can also attach the entire peplomer or other parts of the virus,” says Pissha. “And the vaccine for the SARS-CoV-2 mutant can be changed quickly and easily.”
Target antigen-presenting cells
Nanobodies are an important part of vaccine technology.They are specially designed to target antigen-presenting cells, important cells within Immune systemBy homing to a class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen on the cell surface. This brings the business end of the vaccine (in this case, the segment of peplomer) directly to the cells that are “displayed” by other cells. Immune cells, Causes a broader immune response.
Current COVID-19 vaccines are presumed to stimulate the production of peplomers at the site of injection and indirectly stimulate antigen-presenting cells, says Ploegh.
“But it’s much more efficient to take the mediator out and talk directly to the antigen-presenting cells,” he says. “The aim is a secret sauce.”
In mouse experiments, the vaccine elicited strong humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and stimulated large amounts of neutralizing antibodies against peplomer protein fragments.It also elicited strong cell-mediated immunity and stimulated T-helpers. cell It mobilizes other immune defenses.
Vaccines are much more suitable for large-scale production because they are proteins rather than messenger RNAs like Pfizer / BioNTech and Modana vaccines.
“We don’t need the many great techniques and expertise needed to make an mRNA vaccine,” says Hermand. “Skilled workers are now a bottleneck in the production of COVID vaccines, but biopharmacy has extensive experience in producing protein-based therapeutics on a large scale.”
This will vaccination At many sites around the world, close to where it is used. The team has applied for patents on their technology and is now hoping to bring their work to biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies for further trials and ultimately clinical trials.
“The first application could be something other than COVID-19,” says Ploegh. “This study was a proof of concept that our protein-based approach worked well.”
Novalia Pishesha et al, Class A II MHC-targeted vaccine induces immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. Minutes of the National Academy of Sciences (2021). DOI: 10.1073 / pnas.2116147118
Boston Children’s Hospital
Quote: The design of the new COVID vaccine is easy to manufacture and does not require refrigeration (2021, November 6). .html
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