Antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein produced by the immune system help identify and prevent future infections, but not all antibodies are the same. People who have recovered from COVID-19 early in the pandemic or who have been vaccinated now may not be able to dodge the newly emerging variants.
But this week mBioResearchers, an open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology, report that the combination of the two can produce stronger defenses.Studies show that people who are infected and vaccinated are of high quality antibody It works on spike variants and is more effective than either group alone.
“We show that antibody quality can improve over time, not just quantity,” said Otto Yang, MD, an immunologist and physician at the University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine, David Geffen. I am. Finding the optimal combination of antibodies may help guide future preventive efforts. “This is a good way to understand what the optimal vaccination plan is,” said Yang, who led the new study.
As the coronavirus spike protein evolves (which helps the virus infiltrate the host cell), the pandemic continues to expand as new variants emerge that help the infection spread more easily from person to person. As a result, antibodies developed by humans after initial infection or vaccination may not adequately protect the body from these new emerging infectious diseases.
A region of the spike protein called the receptor binding domain (RBD) allows the virus to invade the host cell. This region is also an important target for antibodies, but random mutations in RBD mean that it is a constantly changing target. In a new study, Yang and his colleagues compared the anti-RBD antibody in the participants’ blood with the ability of the antibody to neutralize the virus.
In non-infected patients vaccinated with either of the two COVID-19 vaccines, researchers have found that antibodies against mutations in newer variants (such as beta and gamma) than antibodies against the original gene sequence encoded by the vaccine. I found that the effect of was low.Similarly, when analyzed by researchers Blood sample From people infected with coronavirus before May 2020-before the first confirmation of the variant-has been less effective against the new variant compared to the original variant. These findings suggest that both mild infections and vaccination produce antibodies, yet leave humans vulnerable to new mutants.
However, the results of individuals who were infected before May 2020 and were vaccinated a year later differed dramatically. In these previously infected vaccinated individuals, researchers have found antibodies that remain effective against the original sequence but are equally potent against new mutants. According to Yang, these results are consistent with similar findings from other groups published earlier this year, and infected and vaccinated people also contain high-quality antibodies. Is shown.
“I might have predicted that the antibody would continue to evolve and get better with multiple exposures, but I didn’t expect it to happen that fast,” said Yang.
Such studies showing how antibody quality changes may help improve vaccine and booster implementation not only for COVID-19, but also for the following pathogens: Yang Mr. says.
American Society for Microbiology
Quote: COVID-19 variant obtained on December 7, 2021 from https: //medicalxpress.com/news/2021-12-infection-vaccination-yields-antibodies-covid-.html by infection and vaccination ( You will get better antibodies against (2021, December 7th)
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