Small aquatic animals called hydras can regenerate lost heads, and scientists have a clearer idea of how these freshwater invertebrates do it.
NS Hydra The body is pretty simple. It is a tubular cylinder with a foot-like appendage at one end and a tentacle-sounding mouth at the other end. However, hydra have an amazing ability to regenerate amputated body parts. Under the right circumstances, entirely new animals can grow from isolated tissue masses.
In laboratory experiments, Hydra has demonstrated that his cells can be renewed indefinitely. This means that these animals are biologically immortal. However, while previous studies have identified some aspects of hydra regeneration, researchers have sought answers on how the hydra genome grows a brand new head in cells.
Now, scientists aren’t just mapping hydra’s instructions to grow their heads. They also found that the genetic activity of the replacement head during growth differs from the genetic instructions that shape the growth of the head when a new hydra germinates, or that it manifests directly from the parent’s body during asexual reproduction. Shown.
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The results are the same (new hydra head), but gene expression changes much more during regeneration than when the head is growing for the first time after budding.
NS Hydra The genus is part of the cnidaria, the same phylum as the jellyfish, anemones and coral phyla, with 20 to 30 Hydra Race. All cnidarians are tentacles, aquatic invertebrates with symmetrical bodies along the central axis. The hydra can be up to 0.8 inches (20 mm) long and has a head surrounded by 10-12 tentacles. According to “North American Freshwater Invertebrate Ecology and Classification” (Academic Press, 2010).
Aide Macias-Munoz, a research co-author and postdoc researcher at the University of California, Santa Barbara’s Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology, said that hydra has been able to regenerate since it discovered a small animal about 280 years ago. Scientists know. Email science. In previous studies, multiple genes in a pathway called “Wnt” regulated hydra head growth, and a group of so-called head organizer cells near the top of the body were decapitated cells near the hydra head stump. It was also shown that it sent a signal to. Directs the formation of a special tissue for the new head.
In a new study, researchers first identify more than 27,000 genetic factors that play a role in hydra regeneration, then map a small subset of thousands of elements and are active only when the hydra is regrowth. I found a new head that was an on / off switch for the hydra genome.
When the authors of the study created these maps, they realized that not all heads were created the same. When the hydra sprouted, it took about 72 hours to grow the head, but it took about 48 hours to regenerate the replacement head. Researchers have also identified 298 differences in gene expression between the two processes.
“During budding, genes (including those involved in the head organizer) appear to be slowly and constantly increasing over time,” explained Macias-Muñoz. “On the other hand, during regeneration, genes show more dynamic expression, some rapidly increasing and then decreasing, with expression peaking at various points in regeneration.”
This is the first evidence of a change in genetic directives for hydra head growth, a completely different head growth blueprint in which animals have probably incorporated hundreds of genes for regeneration, development and budding. It suggests that you may have a set. Email.
“That means there are three different ways to make a head, depending on the situation,” said Macias-Muñoz.
The findings were published in the journal on December 8th. Genome biology and evolution..
Originally published on Live Science.
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