Helping Next-Generation 5G Cell Technology See Past the Trees


NIST researchers have investigated the effects of trees on millimeter waves planned for use in 5G communications. Credit: N. Hanacek / NIST

Measuring the impact of trees on 5G transmission may prove essential for the use of new classes of signals.

As 5G technology is fully implemented in the next few years, mobile phones and other wireless technologies will become more powerful with increased data flow and reduced latency. But in addition to these benefits, questions arise. Will next-generation mobile phones lose sight of the forest because of the trees?

This is one way to explain the problems faced by cell network designers who need to accept both the strengths and weaknesses of millimeter waves, a new class of signal used by 5G. Not only can these waves carry more information than traditional transmissions, but they also effectively occupy part of the broadcast spectrum that communication technology rarely uses. This is a major concern in an era when broadcasters stake out parts of the spectrum, like prospectors staking territory.

However, millimeter waves also have drawbacks, such as limited ability to penetrate obstacles. These obstacles include not only buildings, but also trees scattered throughout the landscape. Until recently, little was known about how trees affect millimeter-wave propagation. And just as most of us want to imagine a landscape without greenery, few designers can plan the network around it without such important basic details.

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has set out to solve this problem by measuring the effect of trees on millimeter waves. This effort could make a big difference in the ability of next-generation devices to see 5G antennas that are likely to germinate soon.

The 5G era features wireless communication not only between people, but also between devices connected to the Internet of Things. The growing demand for high-volume downloads by cell customers and the lag-free network response of gamers has led the wireless industry to pursue faster and more effective communications. Not only can current devices and services work more effectively, but new ones can also be realized. Self-driving cars rely on such rapid network responses to function.

“If our machines can exchange and process information quickly and effectively, we will be able to do new things,” said Nada Golmie, Head of Wireless Networks at NIST at the Communications Technology Laboratory. .. “But you need a good communication infrastructure. The idea is to connect, process data in one place, and process data in another.”

Millimeter waves, a new area of ​​the wireless industry, have the potential to become part of the solution. Their crests are only a few millimeters apart — very short distances compared to radio waves that are several meters long. And their frequencies are very high, at 30-300 GHz, or 1 billion crests per second. Compared to traditional radio transmissions in the kilohertz (for AM) and megahertz (for FM) ranges, the new 5G signals are certainly at very high frequencies. For example, it’s like a bird muttering at the upper limit of human audibility compared to the depths of the radio. bass.

Millimeter-wave high frequencies are attractive as data carriers and difficult to use. On the one hand, having more wave peaks per second means that the waves can carry more information. In an era of high data consumption, we are anxious for the ability to provide these fast downloads and network responses. On the other hand, high frequencies have problems passing through obstacles. Anyone who passes by a house or car where a resident is playing loud dance music knows that most of the throbbing bass frequencies reach the outdoors, not the nimble soprano treble. I am.

For 5G networks, the only obstacle wall is the oak leaves. As a result, NIST scientists embarked on a rather unusual task in September 2019. They installed measuring devices near trees and shrubs of various sizes around the campus in Gacersburg, Maryland. The investigation continued for several months, partly because of the need for a seasonal perspective.

“Tree research is one of the few studies that looks at the effects of the same tree on a particular signal frequency over different seasons,” says Golmie. “We couldn’t do the survey just in winter because the situation changed by summer. We found that even the shape of the leaves affected whether the signal was reflected or passed.”

The team worked with the wireless community to develop the mobile devices needed for measurement. Researchers focused it on a single tree and directed millimeter-wave signals at them from different angles and positions, simulating waves coming from different directions. They measured loss or attenuation in decibels. (For every 10 dB loss, the power of 10 is reduced. A attenuation of 30 dB means that the signal is reduced by a factor of 1,000.)

“Tree studies are one of the few studies that look at the effects of the same tree on a particular signal frequency throughout different seasons. Even the shape of the leaves affects whether the signal is reflected or passed.” — NIST researcher, Nada Golmie

In the case of European nettle, which is a type of lush tree, the average attenuation in summer was 27.1 dB, but the average attenuation in winter when the tree was exposed was reduced to 22.2 dB. Evergreens have blocked more signals. Their average attenuation was 35.3 dB, and this number did not change with the seasons.

(As a measure of comparison, teams have different types Building materials.. Wooden doors, gypsum board walls, and internal glass showed losses up to 40.5 dB, 31.6 dB, and 18.1 dB, respectively, while external building materials showed even greater losses, up to 66.5 dB. )

NIST’s contribution to 5G network development efforts can ultimately be as ubiquitous as the trees themselves, but for most of us they are much less noticeable. The measurements made by the team are primarily aimed at companies building models of how different objects affect millimeter waves.Part of the effort Collaboration with Ansys Inc.. The company used the measurement data shared by NIST to tune the tree simulation model that cell companies use to plan their antenna networks in detail.

“Most models don’t contain measurement-based information about trees,” said David Lai of NIST, one of the scientists who conducted the study. “They may simply say that you should expect some signal loss for a given tree-like shape. Improve your model by providing accurate measurement-based propagation data. I want to. “

The collaboration between NIST and Ansys contributed to the guidance issued by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the organization that develops guidelines for telecommunications standards. The results are now displayed as a new section on the ITU tree. Recommendation ITU-RP.833-10.. This publication serves as a reference for signal propagation models developed by others.

“Our goal is to get these measurements in front of the entire wireless community,” Golmie said. “We hope this effort will serve the entire market.”

(function(d, s, id){
var js, fjs = d.getElementsByTagName(s)[0];
if (d.getElementById(id)) return;
js = d.createElement(s); = id;
js.src = “//”;
fjs.parentNode.insertBefore(js, fjs);
}(document, ‘script’, ‘facebook-jssdk’));

Helping Next-Generation 5G Cell Technology See Past the Trees Source link Helping Next-Generation 5G Cell Technology See Past the Trees

The post Helping Next-Generation 5G Cell Technology See Past the Trees appeared first on California News Times.

Source link


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here

Share post:


More like this

Head of EU Regulator ESMA

Head of top securities regulator in EU believes a...

Ignore the SNB’s huge stonking losses

Mirik Chapman is the CEO of Hedge Analytics and...

March For Our Lives 2022: What we know about DC demonstration – Riverside, California

Riverside, California 2022-05-26 10:30:51 – Hundreds of thousands of...