Global experts race to understand rare cases when monkeypox leads to death – New Orleans, Louisiana

Date:

New Orleans, Louisiana 2022-08-13 13:31:00 –

This year saw tens of thousands of monkeypox cases worldwide and dozens of virus-related deaths, some for the first time outside of Africa, where the virus typically does not spread. Since January 1, more than 31,000 monkeypox cases have been reported worldwide, of which more than 10,000 have been reported in the United States. Most people recover at home and have no lasting problems. But doctors are working to understand why monkeypox is a serious and rarely fatal disease.The latest figures from the World Health Organization show that monkeypox has killed two people in Spain. , one in Brazil, one in Ecuador and one in India. All so-called non-endemic countries. So far, none of these deaths have occurred in the United States.In a recent social media Q&A, Dr. One reason for the condition, he said, is that the severity of the disease is not clearly understood. “People have different reactions when exposed to infectious agents,” she said. Some people have no symptoms at all, while others have only mild symptoms such as a slight fever. They get better and move on with their lives. However, some people develop very serious complications. Lewis said the WHO is asking countries for more information about the situation surrounding monkeypox deaths. Two previously healthy men have died in Spain. Isabel Jado, head of the Spanish National Institute of Microbiology, said her two deaths in the country were a 44-year-old man and a 31-year-old man. The men did not know each other and were not from the same region. Before contracting monkeypox, they were in good health and had no underlying risk factors for serious illness, such as a weakened immune system. They eventually fell into a coma and died. Encephalitis is known to be associated with monkeypox, says Andrea McCallum, an epidemiologist and poxvirus expert at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It is an extremely rare condition. It has been reported in West African monkeypox cases and in a US patient during a small outbreak associated with an imported prairie dog in 2003. The severity of monkeypox probably depends on the person’s underlying medical conditions, available medical resources, and the strain of virus infecting them. In West Africa, monkeypox is fatal about 1% of the time, according to published data. It has also been shown that people who die from monkeypox often have risk factors that weaken their immune system, such as poorly controlled HIV. Pregnant women also have weakened immune systems and may be at increased risk of monkeypox infection. The strain of virus circulating in West Africa is the same strain currently circulating in the United States and other non-endemic countries, the Congo Basin strain. Outside of these endemic settings, little is known about how or why cases become severe. Public health officials say they’re trying to learn on the fly. Doctors report that some of the complications they are treating are genitourinary complications or infections that spread to the eye, she said.To pain management. In other cases, people with risk factors such as weakened immune systems are hospitalized so doctors can watch them closely. It covered one area of ​​a person’s body. Many lesions simply fused together. People who are at high risk for severe monkeypox infections include: pregnant women; young children and young children; People with dermatitis have many sores on their skin, and the monkeypox rash can be even worse: severe nausea and vomiting, diarrhea and dehydration, pneumonia, and secondary skin infections, at least one. two other co-morbidities; CDC should consider antiviral therapy for those in these groups, including an experimental treatment called Tpoxx, which has been given to monkeypox patients as part of a clinical trial. is recommended.

This year saw tens of thousands of monkeypox cases worldwide and more than a dozen deaths linked to the virus, some of them for the first time outside of Africa, where the virus typically does not spread. .

Since January 1, more than 31,000 monkeypox cases have been reported worldwide, of which more than 10,000 have been reported. in the United StatesMost people recover at home and have no lasting problems. But doctors are working to understand why monkeypox is so severe and rarely fatal.

according to latest numbers Monkeypox has killed two people in Spain, one in Brazil, one in Ecuador and one in India, according to the World Health Organization. Non-endemic countriesSo far none of these deaths have occurred in the United States

In a recent social media Q&A, Dr Rosamund Lewis, WHO’s Monkeypox Response Technical Lead, said: One of the reasons infectious diseases are so difficult is that the severity of the disease is not clearly understood.

“When people are exposed to an infectious agent, they react in different ways,” she said. They get better and move on with their lives. However, some people develop very serious complications. “We’re looking at it now,” she said.

Lewis said the WHO is asking all countries to provide more information about the circumstances surrounding monkeypox deaths.

Two previously healthy men die in Spain

Two recent cases in particular are alarming.

a report The two deaths in Spain were men aged 44 and 31, according to Dr. Isabel Jado, director of the Spanish National Institute of Microbiology. The men did not know each other and were not from the same region.Healthy prior to monkeypox with no potential risk factors for serious illness weakened immune system, etc.

Both men developed encephalitis, or swelling of the brain, which could be caused by a viral infection.

Andrea McCallum, an epidemiologist and poxvirus expert at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, says encephalitis is a very rare condition known to be associated with monkeypox. cases have been reported, and in 2003 a case was reported in the United States during a small outbreak associated with an imported prairie dog.

“We don’t know why some of these patients have encephalitis,” McCallum told CNN.

The severity of monkeypox disease probably depends on the individual’s underlying medical conditions, available medical resources, and the strain of virus infecting them.

About 11% of monkeypox cases are fatal in Central Africa’s Congo Basin, McCallum said. This is largely because they are not even vaccinated against the associated smallpox virus, which protects them from monkeypox.

Data, mainly from Nigeria, indicate that monkeypox has a fatality rate of approximately 1% in West Africa. They also show that people who die from monkeypox often have risk factors that weaken their immune system, such as poorly controlled HIV.

Babies do not have fully functioning immune systems, so they are at high risk for serious outcomes, McCollum said. Pregnant women also have weakened immune systems and may be at increased risk of monkeypox infection.

The strain of virus circulating in West Africa is the same strain currently circulating in the United States and other non-endemic countries and is believed to cause milder illness than the Congo Basin strain.

Outside of these endemic settings, little is known about how or why cases become severe. Public health officials say they are trying to learn on the fly.

Severe but no deaths in US

a report Of the 954 patients for whom information is available about the first case in the United States, about 1 in 12, or 8%, was hospitalized.

“We are aware of quite a few patients who have been hospitalized here,” McCollum said. “It’s still a very serious illness,” she said.

Officials have also heard that some patients need to be hospitalized for pain management, McCollum said. In other cases, people with risk factors, such as a weakened immune system, are hospitalized so they can be closely monitored by doctors.

In one case she recently consulted, confluent lesions covered one area of ​​the human body.

This can cause the skin to become so ruffled that it can cause fluid loss problems and should be treated like a burn patient until the skin heals.

People at increased risk of severe monkeypox infection include those who: Pregnant people; infants and young children; and people with eczema or atopic dermatitis, who have many open wounds on their skin, can make the monkeypox rash even worse.People with at least one other complication, such as severe nausea and vomiting, diarrhea and dehydration, pneumonia, secondary skin infections; or another illness at the same time

CDC Recommendation Those in these groups should consider antiviral therapy, including an experimental treatment called Tpoxx, which has been given to monkeypox patients as part of a clinical trial.

Global experts race to understand rare cases when monkeypox leads to death Source link Global experts race to understand rare cases when monkeypox leads to death

The post Global experts race to understand rare cases when monkeypox leads to death – New Orleans, Louisiana appeared first on Eminetra.

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