Researchers at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden have compared how well various Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers can predict disease progression and its effects on memory. They found that early accumulation of tau protein in the brain as measured by PET scanners was more effective in predicting memory impairment than biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid and amyloid plaques in the brain.Results will be published in the journal Molecular psychiatry..
Over 50 million people worldwide suffer from dementia.Alzheimer’s disease disease It is the most common form of dementia and is characterized by the accumulation of protein beta-amyloid (Ab) and tau in the brain followed by continuous progression. memory Rejected. Pathological progression can take many forms, and it is difficult to predict how quickly symptoms will develop in a particular individual.In addition, the presence of Ab in the human brain-known as Amyloid plaque— It does not necessarily mean that he or she will develop Alzheimer’s disease.
“In recent years, a variety of Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers have been rapidly developed to measure and detect early signs of a patient’s disease,” said a researcher at the Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center, the lead author of the study. Said Marco Butch. Neurobiology, Care Science and Society, Karolinska Institute. “But we need to find tests that can more specifically predict the onset of the disease so that we can improve not only the diagnosis but also the prognosis and treatment.”
Some biomarkers identify Aβ or tau accumulation, while other biomarkers are used to measure loss of nerve function (neurodegeneration). Protein accumulation and neurodegeneration Cerebrospinal fluid Using (CSF) and plasma, or brain imaging Positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Current guidelines for early detection of Alzheimer’s disease with biomarkers support the compatibility of brain imaging with analysis of CSF biomarkers (pTau and Ab), which is controversial. Longitudinal studies showing how biomarkers are associated with progressive cognitive impairment are also lacking.
“Our studies show that the presence of amyloid plaques in the brain and changes in Ab and pTau levels in CSF can be detected early in the course of the disease, but what is later memory loss? There doesn’t seem to be any correlation, “says Dr. Butch. “But our results show that the presence of tau in the brain, as measured by PET scanners, is associated with a rapid decline in episodic memory, which is often affected, especially in the early stages of the disease. Our observations should be that tau PET is recommended for the clinical prognosis of cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. “
The results are based on brain imaging (PET and MRI) and CSF analysis in a group of 282 participants consisting of people with mild cognitive impairment, people with Alzheimer’s disease, and healthy controls. Of the participants, 213 were monitored for three years on a test of episodic memory (that is, short-term memory associated with everyday events).
“Our findings show that tau levels are brain In Alzheimer’s disease, it plays an important role in its pathological progression and may be a major target for future drug treatments, “said Agneta Noor, a senior researcher at the Alzheimer’s Research Center at the Carolinska Institute. Berg says.
“Alzheimer’s disease profiled by body fluids and imaging markers: Tau PET best predicts cognitive decline,” Marco Bucci, Konstantinos Chiotis & Agneta Nordberg, Molecular psychiatry, DOI: 10.1038 / s41380-021-01263-2
Quote: Early accumulation of tau in the brain was obtained from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-09-early-accumulation-tau-brain-memory.html on September 30, 2021 for Alzheimer’s disease (2021). Predicts memory loss (September 30, 2014)
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