You don’t have to be Sherlock Holmes to use the power of deductive reasoning … or is it inductive reasoning?
What is the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning?
The scientific process uses deductive reasoning to reach logical and true conclusions. Another type of reasoning, inductive reasoning, is also commonly used. People often confuse deductive reasoning with inductive reasoning. However, due to important differences, these two paths can be divided into logical conclusions.
What is deductive reasoning?
Deductive reasoning, also known as deduction, is the basic form of reasoning. It starts with a general statement or hypothesis and considers the possibility of reaching a particular logical conclusion. According to Norman Hair, Professor of Secondary Education at California State University, Northridge Scientific method Use deductions for testing hypothesis Dr. Sylvia Wassertail Smoller, a researcher and emeritus professor at Albert Einstein Medical College, said he would predict certain outcomes if the theory was correct.
“We move from general theory to specific observations,” Wassertheil-Smoller said.
Deductive reasoning has a first premise, then a second premise, and finally reasoning (reasoning and evidence-based conclusions). The general form of deductive reasoning is syllogism, where two statements (major and minor premises) come together to reach a logical conclusion. For example, the major premise “All A is B” can be followed by the minor premise “This C is A”. These statements lead to the conclusion that “this C is B”. Syllogism is considered a good way to test deductive reasoning and confirm that the argument is valid.
For example, “Every spider has eight legs. Tarantulas are spiders. Therefore, tarantulas have eight legs.” For deductive reasoning to be correct, the hypothesis must be correct. .. The statements “all spiders have eight legs” and “tarantulas are spiders” are assumed to be true. Therefore, the conclusion is logical and true. In deductive reasoning, if something generally applies to something in a class, it also applies to all members of that class.
According to Herr, the deductive conclusion is credible if the premise is true. The argument that “every bald man is a grandfather. Harold is a bald. Therefore, Harold is a grandfather” is logically valid, but incorrect because the original assumptions are wrong.
What is inductive reasoning
Deductive reasoning begins with assumptions proved through observation, while inductive reasoning extracts possible (but uncertain) assumptions from certain limited observations. There is data, and conclusions are drawn from that data. This is called induction logic, according to University of Illinois In Springfield.
“Inductive reasoning moves from specific to general. We make a lot of observations, identify patterns, generalize, and infer explanations or theories,” Wassertheil-Smoller told Live Science. I told you. “In science, between inductive reasoning (based on observation) and deductive reasoning (based on theory), until we get closer to the” truth “that we can approach but cannot completely confirm. There is constant interaction. “”
In other words, the reliability of the conclusions made by inductive logic depends on the completeness of the observation. For example, let’s say you have a bag of coins. Withdraw 3 coins from the bag and each coin will be 1 penny. You can use inductive logic to suggest that every coin in the bag is a penny. The first observations (each coin taken out of the bag was a penny) are all correct, but inductive reasoning does not guarantee a conclusion. It will be true.
Here is another example: “Penguins are birds. Penguins can’t fly. Therefore, not all birds can fly.” The conclusion cannot be logically drawn from the statement.
Nevertheless, inductive reasoning has its place Scientific method, And scientists use it to form hypothesis When theory.. Deductive reasoning allows them to apply the theory to specific situations.
Examples of deductive reasoning
The following is an example of deductive reasoning.
Major premise: All mammals have a spine.
Minor premise: Humans are mammals.
Conclusion: Humans have a spine.
Major premise: All birds lay eggs.
Minor premise: Pigeons are birds.
Conclusion: Pigeons lay eggs.
Major premise: All plants photosynthesize.
Minor premise: Cacti are plants.
Conclusion: Cacti perform photosynthesis.
Example of inductive reasoning
The following is an example of inductive reasoning.
data: I see fireflies in the backyard every summer.
hypothesis: You may see fireflies in the backyard this summer.
data: All the dogs I meet are friendly.
hypothesis: Most dogs are usually friendly.
data: People around you tend to catch colds when they get sick.
hypothesis: Colds are infectious.
What is abduction reasoning
Another form of scientific reasoning that differs from inductive and deductive reasoning is abduction reasoning. Abduction reasoning usually begins with an apparently incomplete series of observations and proceeds to the most likely explanation of the data. According to Butte College In Oroville, California. It is based on using the best available information to formulate and test hypotheses. In many cases, it is necessary to make informed inferences after observing phenomena that are not clearly explained.
For example, when a person enters the living room, there are torn papers all over the floor. That person’s dog was alone in the apartment all day long. The person concludes that the dog tore the paperwork because it is the most likely scenario. The dog theory is the most likely conclusion, although the family holding the apartment key may have destroyed the paperwork or it was done by the landlord.
Abduction reasoning helps you develop hypotheses to test. Abduction reasoning is often used by physicians who make diagnoses based on test results and by juries who make decisions based on the evidence presented.
Deductive reasoning vs. Inductive reasoning Source link Deductive reasoning vs. Inductive reasoning
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