Breakthrough malaria vaccine reinvigorates the fight against the disease

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The World Health Organization has announced a historic move: it Recommended The first ever spread of malaria vaccine. This recommendation is based on the results of ongoing pilot programs in Malawi, Ghana and Kenya. Malaria is a major global health problem, with approximately 409,000 people dying from malaria in 2019 alone. The WHO Africa region is responsible for a significant portion of the malaria burden —94% Of all malaria cases and deaths, it occurred in this area. Children under the age of 5 are the most vulnerable. Ina Skosana asked Eunice Anyango Owino to explain the development and its importance.

It took 30 years. Why is it so long?

The most important reason is Malaria parasite It’s very complicated. There are various stages. Some are in mosquitoes and some are in humans. Therefore, scientists had to pursue a variety of approaches.

For example, humans have two stages. These are:

  • Preerythrocyte stage (sporozoite, or spore-like stage). This is the period during which the mosquito bite parasite sporozoite invades. Blood flow It then heads to the liver, matures and proliferates, and then is released.
  • Blood stage (merrozoite stage). This is when the parasite merozoite is released from the liver and proliferates in red blood cells.

Very effective vaccination For the first stage (pre-erythrocyte stage), Immune response It will prevent infection of hepatocytes or lead to destruction of infected hepatocytes.

An effective vaccine in the second stage (blood stage) is a vaccine that does one of the following three things: Red blood cellsReduce the number of parasites in the blood. It reduces the severity of the disease by developing natural immunity that puts the body at little risk of getting sick.

Another option was to develop an infection-blocking vaccine. Effective anti-infection vaccines induce antibodies that block the maturation of malaria parasites in mosquitoes that feed on vaccinated individuals.

Another factor that caused the delay was the lack of understanding of the specific immune response associated with defense against parasites by scientists working on malaria vaccines in the early stages.

Also, Plasmodium, etc. Plasmodium falciparum-Displays various antigens on the surface that help escape the immune system, reducing the effectiveness of vaccines based on specific antigens.

Please tell me more about vaccines.

Vaccine RTS, S, trade name Mosquirx, 5 to 17 months old, given 4 times. The first 3 doses are given monthly, the first dose is 5 months and the third dose is 9 months. The fourth booster dose is given between 15 and 18 months.

NS Effectiveness About 40% for malaria cases and 30% for severe malaria.

No two vaccines or illnesses are comparable. WHO has set an efficacy level of 50% or higher for most vaccines, and the most effective vaccines offer a protection level of 75% or higher. For example, the COVID-19 vaccine, which is based on Pfizer and Moderna’s messenger (m) RNA technology, offers well over 90% protection levels.

The RTS and S vaccines target parasites before they infect hepatocytes.It targets the circumsprolozoite protein above Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoites are considered pre-erythrocyte vaccines because they surface.

What is the next step?

First, WHO and the manufacturer of the vaccine GlaxoSmithKline will bring together countries, especially those with high malaria burden, to adopt the vaccine as part of their national malaria control strategy.

They also call on these countries to secure funding.

They will also be involved in financing from the global health community and working with partners for the broader deployment of vaccines.

Fair and long-term access to vaccines is required. Vaccines should also be cost effective.

The WHO announcement is expected to reinvigorate the competition to find a more efficient vaccine against malaria.Current Report The Jenner Institute at Oxford University suggests that a malaria vaccine that has the potential to meet the WHO target of 75% is being tested in Burkina Faso.

What does this mean for Africa’s malaria control?

Vaccine Malaria measures Toolkit.

Vaccines do not provide complete protection. It will also be introduced as part of a toolkit aimed at reducing malaria infections and reducing deaths. Other measures include mosquito nets and residual spray indoors.

Nonetheless, vaccines have great potential to reduce mortality and illness in high-burden areas of sub-Saharan Africa, especially when used in combination with existing malaria prophylaxis. For example, in a study by the London School of Tropical Medicine, 70% reduction Hospitalization and death of children receiving Mosquirx vaccine and antimalarial drugs.

Malaria control is stagnant in some African countries, and in countries such as Sudan and Eritrea. Recent past..

Vaccines reactivate the fight against malaria.. And it offers a promise to get it back on track.


WHO recommends children to use the first malaria vaccine


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Quote: Breakthrough Malaria Vaccine Fights Disease Obtained on October 8, 2021 from https: //medicalxpress.com/news/2021-10-breakthrough-malaria-vaccine-reinvigorates-disease.html Revitalizes (October 8, 2021)

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